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Passkeys vs Security Keys: Which One Offers Better Protection?

by BIO-key Team

passkeys vs security keys

Organizations are increasingly recognizing the limitations and vulnerabilities associated with traditional password-based authentication. As a result, many are turning to passwordless authentication methods to enhance their security posture and improve user experience.  

Two popular methods gaining traction are passkeys and security keys. Passkeys operate within the FIDO2 WebAuthn standards framework to offer more flexible options to authenticate beyond FIDO2’s past options of single-device authentication (“Platform Authenticators”) and hardware security keys. On the other hand, security keys are physical tokens that utilize strong public key cryptography and provide a robust defense against various attacks, including phishing and credential theft. Choosing between passkeys and security keys requires careful consideration of factors such as usability, convenience, scalability, and compatibility. Organizations must assess their specific needs and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each method to make an informed decision.  

In this blog post, we will compare and analyze the characteristics of passkeys and security keys, and provide recommendations for selecting the method that best aligns with your unique requirements. Additionally, we will discuss best practices for enhancing the security of passkeys and implementing security keys effectively to maximize their protective capabilities. By the end, you will have a comprehensive understanding of passkeys vs security keys, enabling you to make an informed decision and strengthen your organization's authentication methods. 


Passkeys: Understanding the Concept 


What is a Passkey?

A passkey is a method that allows users to access systems or services without the need for traditional passwords. It typically leverages familiar device unlock methods such as biometrics (e.g., fingerprint or facial recognition) or PINs to authenticate users. Passkeys provide an alternative to passwords, aiming to enhance security and user experience by leveraging the convenience and familiarity of device-based authentication. 


Passkeys for Passwordless Login 

Here's a breakdown of how passkeys work: 

  1. Passkey Registration:
    1. During passkey registration, users verify their identity and associate the passkey with their account.
    2. Users also set up the device screen unlock method, such as fingerprint (e.g., Touch ID), facial recognition (e.g., Face ID), PIN, or pattern. This screen unlock method serves as the passkey authentication, utilizing a public-private key pair.

  2. Passkey Authentication:
    1. When users attempt to sign in to the website or application again, they are presented with the passkey authentication option.
    2. The system prompts users to authenticate themselves using the registered device screen unlock method, unlocking access to the private key associated with the passkey.
    3. Once the device is successfully unlocked, the private key securely signs the passkey, creating a cryptographic signature that is transmitted to the server for authentication.

  3. Server-Side Authentication:
    1. The server receives the passkey and performs the necessary verification steps.
    2. The server checks if the passkey signature is valid by using the associated public key stored on the server. This ensures the integrity and authenticity of the passkey.
    3. Additionally, the server may employ other security measures, such as verifying the authenticity of the user's device or checking the integrity of the passkey itself.
    4. If the passkey signature is valid and the authentication is successful, the server grants access to the user's account, providing a secure and passwordless login experience. 


It's important to note that the exact implementation of passkeys may vary depending on the platform, browser, or service provider. However, the underlying principle remains consistent — passkeys offer passwordless login by utilizing device unlock methods and providing a secure authentication experience. 


Passkey: Strengths and Weaknesses

Passkeys offer several advantages over traditional password-based authentication: 

  • Enhanced User Experience: Passkeys eliminate the need for users to type their usernames, reducing friction and simplifying the sign-in process. Moreover, users can authenticate using their device's screen lock, such as fingerprint sensors or facial recognition, resulting in a seamless and convenient user experience. 
  • Robust Protection against Phishing: Passkeys are bound to specific websites and apps and cannot be used on deceptive sites. The browser or operating system handles the verification process, preventing users from falling victim to phishing attacks. 
  • Reduced Security Liabilities: Unlike passwords, passkeys do not require developers to store sensitive user credentials on servers. Instead, only a public key is saved, significantly reducing the value for potential attackers and minimizing cleanup efforts in the event of a data breach. 

However, passkeys also have certain limitations: 

  • Device Dependency: Passkeys are tied to the user's device, requiring device unlock verification. While this ensures security, it may limit the flexibility of accessing services from multiple devices. 
  • Adoption and Integration: Passkeys rely on operating system infrastructure for seamless integration. Widespread adoption across different platforms and browsers is essential to provide a consistent passwordless experience. 



Passkey:YOU. No phones. No tokens. No problem. 

BIO-key's Passkey:YOU is an innovative passkey authentication solution leveraging the world’s most advanced biometrics to make your passkey uniquely yours. BIO-key's passkey technology delivers the highest level of security while providing excellent value. Best of all – it can be easily and quickly integrated into existing technology stacks. Passkey:YOU. 


Key Differentiators 

  • The only passkey solution that does not require the use of phones or hardware tokens.  
  • Enterprise-controlled enrollment prevents unauthorized users and account handovers.  
  • BIO-key IBB Passkeys can be layered directly into industry-standard IDPs. If you want to add advanced, easy-to-use, technology to your existing infrastructure investment, we offer a low-friction, high-speed deployment that works hand in hand with it.  


Key Benefits 

  1. Cost & Efficiency
    • Cuts lifecycle costs by 50—70% compared to hardware tokens.
    • Compliant with standard cyber security best practices required by cyber insurers to avoid increased fees or dropped coverage.

  2. Security
    • Passkeys are encrypted unique digital authentication keys that are seen as the future of authentication.
    • Identity-Bound Biometrics are centrally managed encrypted military-grade biometrics for the enterprise space that are immune to man-in-the-middle and replay attacks
    • Eliminates concern around a single point of failure by removing physical devices as potential vulnerabilities (as present with local or device-native biometrics).
    • Pairing passkeys and IBB ensures customers and their end users have the highest levels of security at a low cost of entry, both in terms of deployment and capital.

  3. Flexibility & Familiarity
    • Easy-to-use authentication options when phone-based or token-based methods do not work or aren’t permitted. 
    • One-time enrollment is required to enable access across multiple devices and locations. 
    • Easily integrated into existing tech stacks, systems, applications, and infrastructure.



Security Keys: An Overview 


What is a Security Key? 

A security key, or hardware token, is a physical device that provides an additional layer of security during authentication. Unlike passkeys, which are software-based and tied to a user's device, security keys are tangible objects that users physically possess. These keys store cryptographic information, enabling strong authentication and protecting against various forms of attacks, including phishing and password theft. 


Types of Security Keys 

Security keys come in various forms, including: 

  1. Hardware Tokens: These are physical devices that connect to a computer or mobile device via USB, Bluetooth, or NFC. They often require user interaction, such as pressing a button or providing a fingerprint, to authorize the authentication process.
  2. Biometric Keys: Biometric security keys utilize biometric authentication methods, such as fingerprint or facial recognition, to verify the user's identity. These keys incorporate biometric sensors and storage for cryptographic information, providing a convenient and secure authentication experience. 


If you’re looking to deploy security keys, check out BIO-key's FIDO-key security keys which are compatible with widely adopted standards like FIDO2 and WebAuthN. These plug-and-play keys work seamlessly with major platforms such as Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux. Additionally, they can be used as one of the supported multi-factor authentication methods of the award-winning identity and access management platform: BIO-key PortalGuard. 


Security Keys for Passwordless Login 

The process of using a security key for passwordless authentication typically involves the following steps: 

  1. Key Registration:
    1. Users connect their security key to their device (e.g., via USB, NFC, or wireless connection).
    2. The security key is registered with the user's account on the target website or application.
    3. During registration, cryptographic keys are exchanged between the security key and the server, establishing a secure connection.

  2. Authentication:
    1. When users attempt to sign in to the website or application, they are prompted to insert or tap their security key.
    2. The security key generates a cryptographic signature unique to the specific sign-in request.
    3. The signature is sent to the server, which verifies its authenticity and ensures it matches the registered key.
    4. If the signature is successfully verified, the server grants access to the user's account, completing the authentication process. 


Security Keys: Strengths and Weaknesses 

Security keys offer several advantages in terms of protection: 

  • Strong Security: Security keys provide strong cryptographic protection, making them resistant to phishing attacks, password theft, and other common threats. 
  • Convenient and User-Friendly: They offer a seamless user experience, eliminating the need to remember and enter passwords while providing heightened security. 
  • Universal Compatibility: Security keys adhere to open standards like FIDO, ensuring cross-platform compatibility and support across various websites and applications. 

However, security keys also have certain limitations: 

  • Physical Possession Requirement: Users must have their security key physically present to authenticate, which may cause inconvenience if the key is misplaced or forgotten. 
  • Adoption and Infrastructure: Widespread adoption of security keys by websites, applications, and platforms is necessary for users to fully benefit from their enhanced security features. 
  • Cost and Accessibility: Acquiring and distributing physical security keys may involve additional costs and logistical considerations, potentially limiting their accessibility for some users. 



Comparative Analysis: Passkeys vs Security Keys  

When organizations are considering the implementation of passwordless authentication, several key factors come into play. Choosing between passkeys and security keys requires careful consideration of various aspects, including security, usability, convenience, scalability, and compatibility. 

  1. Security: Security is a critical consideration when choosing between passkeys and security keys.
    1. Resistance to Attacks: Passkeys rely on device unlock methods and are vulnerable to attacks targeting the device's security measures (e.g., biometric spoofing or PIN guessing) or social engineering techniques. Security keys, on the other hand, use strong cryptographic methods and offer superior protection against a wide range of remote attacks, including phishing, man-in-the-middle, and credential stuffing. 
    2. Key Storage and Management: Passkeys typically store keys on the user's device, which may be vulnerable to unauthorized access. Security keys store cryptographic keys within the hardware token itself, reducing the risk of key compromise.

  2. Usability: Usability plays a crucial role in user acceptance and adoption of any authentication method.
    1. User Experience: Passkeys offer a more user-friendly experience, as they leverage familiar device unlock methods like biometrics or PINs. Security keys, on the other hand, may require additional steps or physical possession, which can impact usability.
    2. Training and Onboarding: Evaluate the ease of training users to utilize passkeys or security keys effectively. Passkeys might have a shorter learning curve, while security keys may require more guidance and education.

  3. Convenience: Convenience is a significant factor in determining the success of passwordless authentication.
    1. Device Dependency: Passkeys rely on the user's device for authentication, making them more convenient for users who frequently switch devices. Security keys, being physical tokens, require users to carry them for authentication, which can be less convenient for some individuals.
    2. Lost or Forgotten Credentials: Assess the impact of lost or forgotten passkeys or security keys on user access. Passkeys may offer easier recovery options, while security keys may require additional steps or administrative intervention.

  4. Scalability: The scalability of the chosen authentication method is crucial for organizations with large user bases or expanding infrastructures. 
    1. Deployment and Management: Evaluate the ease of deploying and managing passkeys or security keys across a diverse user population. Consider factors such as provisioning, revocation, and central management capabilities.
    2. Cost Considerations: Assess the financial implications of implementing passkeys or security keys at scale. Consider factors such as upfront costs, ongoing maintenance, and potential device replacement needs.

  5. Compatibility: Compatibility with existing systems, platforms, and standards is essential for a seamless integration of passwordless authentication.
    1. Standards and Support: Passkeys and security keys should align with widely adopted standards like FIDO2 (Fast Identity Online) to ensure compatibility across various platforms and services.
    2. Application Integration: Evaluate the compatibility of passkeys or security keys with the target applications and systems. Consider factors such as available APIs, SDKs, and the level of integration effort required. 


Choosing between passkeys and security keys involves a careful evaluation of security, usability, convenience, scalability, and compatibility. By assessing these factors, organizations can make an informed decision that aligns with their security goals, user needs, and infrastructure requirements, ultimately paving the way for a successful implementation of passwordless authentication. 



Best Practices for Enhanced Protection 

To maximize the security of passkeys and security keys, it is essential to follow best practices and implement them effectively. Here are some recommendations for strengthening the security of passkeys and implementing security keys effectively: 


Strengthening Passkey Security 

  • Enable Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Supplement passkeys with an additional layer of security, such as biometrics or one-time passwords, to enhance protection against unauthorized access. 
  • Regularly Update Software and Firmware: Keep passkey-enabled devices up to date with the latest software and firmware patches to address security vulnerabilities and ensure optimal protection. 
  • Educate Users on Security Awareness: Train users to recognize and avoid phishing attempts, social engineering, and other common attack vectors that could compromise their passkeys. Promote good password hygiene and emphasize the importance of keeping passkeys confidential. 
  • Implement Account Lockout Policies: Enforce account lockouts or temporary suspensions after a certain number of failed passkey attempts to mitigate brute-force attacks and unauthorized access. 


Implementing Security Keys Effectively 

  • Choose Reputable and Certified Security Key Providers: Select security keys from trusted vendors that adhere to industry standards and undergo rigorous security evaluations, such as FIDO2 certification. 
  • Centralize Key Management: Implement a centralized key management system to efficiently provision, revoke, and manage security keys across your organization. This ensures proper control and minimizes the risk of unauthorized key usage. 
  • Encourage Physical Key Protection: Educate users on the importance of safeguarding their security keys physically. Encourage them to store keys in secure locations and avoid leaving them unattended or easily accessible. 
  • Plan for Backup and Recovery: Establish backup and recovery mechanisms in case of lost or damaged security keys. Consider alternative authentication methods or contingency plans to ensure uninterrupted user access. 

By following these recommendations, organizations can enhance the protection provided by passkeys and security keys, safeguarding their systems and user accounts from potential attacks. However, it is crucial for organizations to remain updated on the latest security trends and advancements related to their chosen authentication method. Additionally, conducting regular security audits and assessments is essential to identify any potential vulnerabilities and ensure compliance with security protocols and best practices. 



Passkeys and security keys offer significant improvements over traditional password-based authentication. When weighing the options of passkey vs security key, organizations must carefully evaluate the merits and drawbacks of each method, aligning them with their specific needs. Irrespective of the selected approach, adhering to best practices such as enabling multi-factor authentication, maintaining regular updates, providing user education, and implementing robust key management is essential. By making informed decisions and implementing stringent security measures, organizations can embrace the benefits of passkey or security key authentication while ensuring robust protection against cyber threats. 

If you’re interested in exploring passkey authentication more, please visit our Passkey:YOU page for additional information or contact our team with any questions at all.  

BIO-key Team

Author: BIO-key Team

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